<i>Ypthima </i>and <i>Ypthimomorpha: </i>their immature stages<i> </i>and taxonomic relationships<i> </i>(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).


  • A. Sourakov
  • T. C. Emmel


Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Colorado, eggs, Ethiopian, evolution, Ghana, hostplants, Japan, larvae, Madagascar, Nepal, Oriental, pupae, South Africa, Taiwan, Ypthimiini


Immature stages of the satyrine butterflies Ypthima doleta Kirby, Ypthima condamini nigeriae Kielland, and Ypthimomorpha itonia Hewitson from Ghana, West Africa, are illustrated and compared. The divergence of Ypthimomorpha itonia from these members of Ypthima Hübner, is supported by the appearance of its immatures. The relatedness of these African species to Oriental members of Ypthima is then discussed. Ypthimomorpha is found to be closer morphologically to the Oriental cluster. It is proposed that Ypthimomorpha or its immediate ancestor represent an evolutionary bridge between Oriental and African groups of Ypthima, The immature stages of these latter two groups arc different when preserved material from Africa is compared with illustrations of immatures of the four Ypthima species from Taiwan and Japan, as well as two species from Nepal (Ypthima avanta and Y. sakra). Therefore, the recognition of the monotypic genus Ypthimomorpha without simultaneous creation of a new generic name for the African Ypthima group is not defensible taxonomically.