Nuclear (nrITS) and plastid (matK and trnL-F) DNA sequence data were used to estimate the phylogeny of Laeliinae and Encyclia sensu lato. The combined molecular plus indel matrix was analyzed with a successively weighted parsimony analysis. Bootstrap percentages were used to estimate support in the tree topology. The following relationships have strong bootstrap support: Meiracylliinae is shown to be embedded in Laeliinae; Ponerinae is supported as monophyletic; Neocogniauxia is sister to the Ponerinae plus Laeliinae clade; and Encyclia sensu stricto, Euchile, and Dinema are supported as monophyletic clades. The Prosthechea clade has strong bootstrap support. Encyclia sensu lato is not monophyletic. The taxonomic histories of Anacheilium, Dinema, Encyclia, Epithecia, Euchile, Hormidium, Oestlundia, Osmophytum, Artorima, Hagsatera, Psychilis, and Prosthechea are elucidated.
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