This work consists of surveying the ftoristics and conserving the Orchidaceae of the Rio das Pedras Reserve in the Mangaratiba municipal district of Rio de Janeiro. This area, located between the coordinates 22°59'S and 44°05'W, represents a valuable remnant of the Atlantic Pluvial Forest. Two subfamilies, 43 genera, and 88 species of orchids have been identified in the Reserve. The orchid family is the most representative one among the monocotyledons, representing 48% of the total species in this group. The most representative genera are Pleurothallis (13 spp.) and Epidendrum (9 spp.). A live collection of species from the Reserve, maintained by the Research Institute of the Botanical Garden of Rio De Janeiro, duplicates the taxa needed for listing species in the area. To date, 24 orchid species have been analyzed regarding their conservation status and placed in the following categories: Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Low Risk (LR), Rare (RARE), and Data Deficient (DD). In contrast to other surveys of the orchid family in the State of Rio De Janeiro, the Reserve is the smallest area but the richest in orchid species and thus an important forest remainder in the State.
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