The neotropical Gloxinieae are one of the largest tribes in the subfamily Gesnerioideae (Gesneriaceae). The tribe contains 19 genera and approximately 230 species. The tribe Gesnerieae contains approximately 100 species with two to four genera depending on the treatment. Recent cladistic analyses of the tribes in the Gesneriaceae have indicated that Sinningia, Paliavana, and Vanhouttea are best removed from the Gloxinieae and placed in a separate tribe, Sinningieae. This study investigates the relationships of all but two of the remaining genera of the Gloxinieae, all but one of the Gesnerieae, and the relationship of the two tribes to each other. The Gloxinieae are found to be paraphyletic exclusive of the Sinningieae and the epiphytic genus Capanea. Capanea is found to be placed best within the Episcieae, a tribe that contains the majority of the epiphytic species in the neotropical Gesnerioideae. The Gloxinieae include a polyphyletic Gesnerieae with Sanango embedded in a polytomy of Gloxinieae and the remainder of the tribe monophyletic. The close sister group relationship of several genera is revealed and support is provided for the combination of Parakohleria into Pearcea. The two genera Gesneria and Rytidophyllum are in separate clades indicating that their separate generic status may be warranted.
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