How to Cite

Madison, M. (1979). ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS ON ANT-GARDENS IN AMAZONAS. Selbyana, 5(2), 107–115. Retrieved from


In 1901 the botanist Ernst VIe published a paper entitled 'Ameisengarten im Amazonasgebiet' in which he presented observations on structures which he called 'ant-gardens.' These are arboreal nests of several species of
ants which invariably have growing from them epiphytic angiosperms. The epiphytic flora, which is restricted to ant-gardens, includes species ofCodonanthe, Philodendron, Anthurium, Aechmea, Peperomia, and Markea, among
others. VIe proposed that the relationships ofthe ants and the plants in these ant-gardens is highly specialized, and that the plants could not survive without the ants on which they are dependent for dispersal of their seeds, protection from predators, and provision of organic matter around the roots. The ants presumably benefit in this relationship by having the roots of the plants serve as an~architectural framework for their nests.


Open Access and Copyright Notice


Selbyana is committed to real and immediate open access for academic work. All of Selbyana's articles and reviews are free to access immediately upon publication. There are no author charges (APCs) prior to publication, and no charges for readers to download articles and reviews for their own scholarly use.  To facilitate this, Selbyana depends on the financial backing of the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, the hard work and dedication of its editorial team and advisory board, and the continuing support of its network of peer reviewers and partner institutions.

Authors are free to choose which open license they would like to use for their work. Our default license is the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 (CC BY-NC 4.0). While Selbyana’s articles can be copied by anyone for noncommercial purposes if proper credit is given, all materials are published under an open-access license with authors retaining full and permanent ownership of their work. The author grants Selbyana a perpetual, non-exclusive right to publish the work and to include it in other aggregations and indexes to achieve broader impact and visibility.

Authors are responsible for and required to ascertain that they are in possession of image rights for any and all photographs, illustrations, and figures included in their work or to obtain publication or reproduction rights from the rights holders. Contents of the journal will be registered with the Directory of Open Access Journals and similar repositories. Authors are encouraged to store their work elsewhere, for instance in institutional repositories or personal websites, including commercial sites such as, to increase circulation (see The Effects of Open Access).