Effect of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L.) extract on hatching of Globodera rostochiensis and Meloidogyne spp.


  • M. Di Vito
  • V. Alba
  • E. Alba
  • F. Catalano


The effect of pokeweed fruit extract on hatching of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and the British root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne artiellia, was studied in Italy under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1 °C. Cysts of G. rostochiensis were exposed to a series of increasing pokeweed fruit extract aliquots of 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 ml, which were added to 3 ml of sodium metavanadate 0.6 mM. Egg masses of M. artiellia were exposed to the same series of increasing fruit extract aliquots that were instead added to 3 ml of water. Controls were the hatching agent sodium metavanadate 0.6 mM, pokeweed root leachate and an aliquot of 1 ml of pokeweed fruit extract added to 3 ml of water for G. rostochiensis, and distilled water only for M. artiellia. The control treatment sodium metavanadate induced 20.7% hatching of G. rostochiensis, whereas the other two controls, pokeweed root leachate and 1 ml fruit extract in 3 ml of water, did not induce any hatching. The hatching of G. rostochiensis was not enhanced by adding to sodium metavanadate aliquots of 0.01-0.05 ml of pokeweed fruit extract, but was significantly increased by adding larger aliquots of 0.1-0.8 ml and suppressed (7.2%) by 1 ml. The greatest hatch increase of G. rostochiensis (81.6%) was provided by adding an aliquot of 0.4 ml of pokeweed fruit extract to 3 ml of sodium metavanadate. Hatching of M. artiellia was of 80.5 % in the control distilled water alone and was not enhanced by adding 0.01-0.2 ml of pokeweed fruit extract. However, water enrichment with increasing aliquots of 0.4-1 ml fruit extract significantly suppressed (17.5-37.7%) M. artiella hatching compared to the control. Pokeweed was a very good host for M. incognita and M. javanica and a non-host for M. artiellia.