On the distribution and ecology of Xiphinema index and X. italiae in Spain


  • A. Navas
  • M. Arias


A study has been undertaken on the ecological factors that influence Xiphinema index and x. italiae distribution in Spain. An analysis has been made of the influence of climate, altitude, potential vegetation and soils factors on their presence and abundance, taking into account a previous review of their distribution and host plants. The analysis was based on 1230 soil samples collected from Region Central and La Rioja, 722 from arable soils and 508 from uncultivated areas. X. italiae was found in arable soils but more often in uncultivated areas, in subhumid climates, acid or slightly acid sandy soils and at relatively high altitudes within the areas investigated. X. index, on the contrary, only appeared in arable soils, mostly in vineyards, at lower altitudes and in Mediterranean environments. X. index is considered to be less limited in its geographical distribution by such environmental factors than is X. italiae.