Toxicity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) to Plant-parasitic and Bacterial-feeding Nematodes


  • Susan L. F. Meyer
  • John M. Halbrendt
  • Lynn K. Carta
  • Andrea M. Skantar
  • Ting Liu
  • Hazem M. E. Abdelnabby
  • Bryan T. Vinyard


biological control, Caenorhabditis elegans, Heterodera glycines, management, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus scribneri, Pristionchus pacificus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhabditis rainai, Xiphinema americanum


The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) is produced by some isolates of the beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. DAPG is toxic to many organisms, and crop yield increases have been reported after application of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens. This study was conducted to determine whether DAPG is toxic to selected nematodes. The plant-parasitic nematodes Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus scribneri and Xiphinema americanum, and the bacterial-feeding nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans, Pristionchus pacificus, and Rhabditis rainai, were immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 mg/ml DAPG. Egg hatch and viability of juveniles and adults were determined. DAPG was toxic to X. americanum adults, with an LD50 of 8.3 mg/ml DAPG. DAPG decreased M. incognita egg hatch, but stimulated C. elegans hatch during the first hours of incubation. Viability of M. incognita J2 and of C. elegans J1 and adults was not affected. There were no observed effects on the other nematodes. The study indicated that DAPG is not toxic to all nematodes, and did not affect the tested species of beneficial bacterial-feeding nematodes. Augmentation of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens populations for nematode biocontrol could be targeted to specific nematode species known to be affected by this compound and by other antibiotics produced by the bacteria, or these bacteria could be used for other possible effects, such as induced plant resistance.