Ribosomal DNA haplotype distribution of <I>Bursaphelenchus xylophilus</I> in Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan


  • Mine Nose
  • Susumu Shiraishi
  • Fumihiko Miyahara
  • Mineko Ohira
  • Koji Matsunaga
  • Masashi Tobase
  • Takao Koyama
  • Kikuo Yoshimoto


Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, haplotype, invasive species, pine wilt disease, pinewood nematode, rDNA, spread route


Ribosomal DNA region sequences (partial 18S, 28S and complete ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) were obtained from DNA extracted directly from wood pieces collected from wilted pine trees throughout the Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan. Either a 2569bp or 2573bp sequence was obtained from 88 of 143 samples. Together with the 45 rDNA sequences of pinewood nematode isolates previously reported, there were eight single nucleotide polymorphisms and two indels of two bases. Based on these mutations, nine haplotypes were estimated. The haplotype frequencies differed among regions in Kyushu island (northwest, northeast and center, southeast, and southwest), and the distribution was consistent with the invasion and spreading routes of the pinewood nematode previously estimated from past records of pine wilt and wood importation. There was no significant difference in haplotype frequencies among the collection sites on Okinawa island.