Dispersal, Infectivity and Sex Ratio of Early- or Late-Emerging Infective Juveniles of the Entomopathogenic Nematode <I>Steinernema carpocapsae</I>


  • Aki Fujimoto
  • E. E. Lewis
  • Gulumser Cobanoglu
  • Harry K. Kaya


Ambush forager, foraging behavior, insect-parasitic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernematidae.


Differences in activity between infective juveniles (IJ) of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae that emerged directly from cadavers onto either a sand or agar substrate compared with those emerging from a cadaver into water and then being placed on the same substrate are known to occur. Differences between S. carpocapsae IJ that emerged directly from a cadaver vs. those that emerged from a cadaver and held in water were further elucidated. Dispersed and non-dispersed IJ from a cadaver were compared with those held in water between two time periods designated as early- (first two days) or late-emerging IJ (seventh day). A significantly greater proportion of early-emerging IJ from the cadaver treatment dispersed, compared with late-emerging IJ from a cadaver or either group of emerging IJ held in aqueous suspension. Moreover, IJ from cadavers were more infectious than those from the aqueous suspensions, and IJ that dispersed were less infectious than those that did not disperse. IJ that emerged early were mostly males, whereas those that emerged late were mostly females. For the non-dispersed IJ, most that emerged early were males, and those that emerged later were females, but among dispersing IJ, there was no difference in sex ratio between early- and late-emerging nematodes.