Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward <I>Bursaphelenchus xylophilus</I> (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae)
Keywords:Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, pine wood nematode, pine wilt disease, botanical nematicide, cassia oil, Cinnamomum cassia, cinnamon oil, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, cinnamaldehyde, structure-activity relationship.
AbstractThe nematicidal activity of two cassia, Cinnamomum cassia, oils (Especial and true), four cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, oils (technical, #500, bark and green leaf), and their compounds (e.g., trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic acid) toward adult Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was examined by a direct contact bioassay. Results were compared with those of 34 related compounds. As judged by 24-hour LC50 values, two cassia oils (0.084-0.085 mg/ml) and four cinnamon oils (0.064-0.113 mg/ml) were toxic toward adult B. xylophilus. Of 45 test compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.061 mg/ml) was the most active nematicide, followed by ethyl cinnamate, a-methyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and allyl cinnamate (0.114-0.195 mg/ml). Potent nematicidal activity was also observed with 4-methoxycinnamonitrile, trans-4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxycinnamaldehyde, ethyl a-cyanocinnamate, cinnamonitrile and cinnamyl bromide (0.224-0.502 mg/ml). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, saturation and carbon skeleton, appear to play a role in determining the toxicities to adult B. xylophilus. Cassia and cinnamon oils and test compounds described merit further study as potential nematicides or leads for the control of pine wilt disease caused by B. xylophilus.
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