Effect of Three Plant Residues and Chicken Manure used as Biofumigants at Three Temperatures on Meloidogyne incognita Infestation of Tomato in Greenhouse Experiments
Keywords:biofumigation, broccoli, chicken manure, control, melon, root-knot nematode, temperature, tomato
AbstractPlant residues of broccoli, melon, and tomato with or without addition of chicken manure were used as biofumigants in two pot experiments with Meloidogyne incognita-infested soils. The efficacy of these biofumigants in controlling M. incognita infestation in susceptible tomato bio-assay plants was studied at soil temperatures of 20ordm;, 25ordm;, and 30 ordm;C. None of the plant residues was effective at 20 ordm;C, and broccoli was more effective than tomato or melon at 25 ordm;C. At 30 ordm;C all three plant residues reduced M. incognita infestation of tomato to very low levels. Chicken manure was effective in one of two experiments at 20 ordm;C, and at 25 ordm;C enhanced the efficacy of tomato and melon residue in one of two experiments. At 30 ordm;C chicken manure was equally effective as the three plant residues but did not further decrease infestation levels in plant residue amended soils. It is concluded that biofumigation to control M. incognita is unlikely to be effective under cool conditions, that at soil temperatures around 25 ordm;C broccoli is more effective than melon and tomato, and that the addition of chicken manure at this soil temperature may enhance the efficacy. At high soil temperatures, of approximately 30 ordm;C, the biofumigant source seems of minor importance as strong reductions in tomato infestation by M. incognita were achieved by addition of each of the three plant residues as well as by addition of chicken manure.
Copyright and Permissions
All material published by the Society of Nematologists (SON), except for papers prepared by United States and Canadian government employees, is copyrighted and protected under the U.S. copyright law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the term of copyright for materials registered by an organization is 75 years from the date first published. Before publishing any manuscript, SON requires that authors transfer full and complete ownership of any copyright to SON by signing a JON Page Charge/Copyright Form (.pdf). SON then registers the copyright. Subsequent use of published materials requires written permission from the SON and may be obtained by contacting the current Editor-in-Chief and state where and how the material will be used.
The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant. If portions of the article have been published previously, then the author warrants that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder and the author will submit a copy of the permission release with this copyright transfer form.
SON shall claim no proprietary right other than copyright. Authors and coauthors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal noncommercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).