Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a New Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), Parasitizing Ginger (Zingiber sp.)


  • Z. A. Handoo
  • A. M. Skantar
  • L. K. Carta
  • E. F. Erbe


ginger, intergenic spacer (igs), internal transcribed spacer (its1), large subunit (lsu) meloidogyne, morphology, new species, ribosomal dna, root-knot nematode, scanning electron microscopy, taxonomy thailand


A root-knot nematode Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. was discovered on roots of ginger (Zingiber spp.) intercepted from Thailand in October 2002 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service at the port of San Francisco. Comparison by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to five other morphologically related species (M. incognita, M. arenaria, M. microcephala, M. megatyla, and M. enterolobii) revealed that the new species differs from these by one or more of the following: body, tail and hyaline tail length, shape of head, tail and tail terminus of second-stage juveniles; stylet length and shape of spicules in males; perineal pattern, stylet length and shape of knobs in females. The distinctive perineal pattern is oval to rectangular, with smooth to moderately wavy and coarse striae, and with characteristic radial structures present underneath the pattern area; the dorsal arch is high, sometimes round to rectangular, and striae in and around the anal area form a thick network-like pattern interrupted by lateral lines and large phasmids. Second-stage juveniles have a long, slender tail and long, gradually tapering hyaline tail region ending in a rounded terminus. Male spicules commonly have an acutely angled shaft with a bidentate terminus. Molecular data from the ribosomal large subunit D3 expansion segment revealed four haplotypes, two of which were unique and distinguish M. thailandica n. sp. from M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.