Nucleotide Substitution Patterning within the Meloidogyne rDNA D3 Region and Its Evolutionary Implications
Keywords:evolution, meloidogyne arenaria, m. hapla, m. incognita, m. javanica, phylogeny, rdna, reproductive modes, root-knot nematodes, speciation
AbstractEvolutionary relationships based on nucleotide variation within the D3 26S rDNA region were examined among acollection of seven Meloidogyne hapla isolates and seven isolates of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Using D3A and D3B primers, a 350-bp region was PCR amplified from genomic DNA and double-stranded nucleotide sequence obtained. Phylogenetic analyses using three independent clustering methods all provided support for a division between the automictic M. hapla and the apomictic M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. A nucleotide sequence character distinguishing M. hapla from the three apomictic species was a 3-bp insertion within the interior of the D3 region. The three apomictic species shared a common D3 haplotype, suggesting a recent branching. Single M. hapla individuals contained two different haplotypes, differentiated by a Sau3AI restriction site polymorphism. Isolates of M. javanica appeared to have only one haplotype, while M. incognita and M. arenaria maintained more than one haplotype in an isolate.
Copyright and Permissions
All material published by the Society of Nematologists (SON), except for papers prepared by United States and Canadian government employees, is copyrighted and protected under the U.S. copyright law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the term of copyright for materials registered by an organization is 75 years from the date first published. Before publishing any manuscript, SON requires that authors transfer full and complete ownership of any copyright to SON by signing a JON Page Charge/Copyright Form (.pdf). SON then registers the copyright. Subsequent use of published materials requires written permission from the SON and may be obtained by contacting the current Editor-in-Chief and state where and how the material will be used.
The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant. If portions of the article have been published previously, then the author warrants that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder and the author will submit a copy of the permission release with this copyright transfer form.
SON shall claim no proprietary right other than copyright. Authors and coauthors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal noncommercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).