Immunogold Localization of Tobacco Rattle Virus Particles within Paratrichodorus anemones


  • E. Karanastasi
  • N. Vassilakos
  • I. M. Roberts
  • S. A. MacFarlane
  • D. J. F. Brown


cross-absorption, detection, electron microscopy, immunogold labelling, localization, nematode, paratrichodorus anemones, safranin-o staining, specificity, stubby-root nematode, trichodoridae, tobacco rattle virus, virus acquisition, virus retention


Unequivocal evidence of the viral nature of virus-like particles observed at the specific site of retention of tobacco rattle virus (TRV) in Paratrichodorus and Trichodorus nematodes has not previously been available. A new staining technique using safranin-O, which does not affect viral antigenicity, was used with an antiserum raised against the coat protein of TRV and prepared for use with immunogold labelling. Application of this method enabled the occurrence and localization of particles of TRV to be confirmed in the pharynx of the natural vector of the virus, Paratrichodorus anemones, and provided unequivocal evidence that the particles observed were TRV particles. The TRV particles were observed attached only to the cuticle lining the posterior tract of the pharyngeal lumen of the vector. Therefore, the specific site of retention of TRV particles in P. anemones is apparently more localized than reported to occur in other vector trichodorid species.