Esterase Allozymes of Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, from China, Japan, and the United States


  • G. R. Noel
  • Z. L. Liu


Individual females from 19 populations of Heterodera glycines from China, Japan, and the United States were analyzed for esterase allozyme polymorphism. Eight esterase electrophoretic phenotypes were resolved. Four putative loci, est-1, est-2, est-3, and est-4, were identified, having one, one, two, and one allele, respectively. The four loci expressed six genotypes in the four Chinese populations. Loci est-2, est-3, and est-4 were identified in five Japanese populations and expressed five genotypes, whereas only loci est-2 and est-3 were identified in 10 populations from the United States and expressed four genotypes. Putative alleles at each locus were defined as characters for data analysis. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (PAUP) was utilized to determine relationships among the 19 populations. More loci and alleles in populations from China and phylogenetic similarities among populations from Japan and the United States are consistent with a founder effect resulting from dissemination of progenitor H. glycines from China to Japan and subsequent introductions of founder populations from Japan to the United States. Key words: allozyme, biogeography, colonization, esterase polymorphism, founder effect, Heterodera glycines, parsimony, phylogenetic analysis, soybean cyst nematode.