Effect of Monochamus carolinensis on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Dispersal Stage Formation


  • Semi Necibi
  • Marc J. Linit


Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its insect vector, Monochamus carolinensis, both develop within rapidly degrading xylem tissue of dying or recently cut trees of Pinus spp. The influence of Monochamus development on B. xylophilus dispersal stage formation was investigated. Nearly all nematodes extracted from wood surrounding beetle galleries were third-stage dispersal juveniles (J3). Formation of fourth-stage dispersal juveniles (J4) occurred almost exclusively in the presence of M. carolinensis late pupae and callow adults. This pattern was observed with live insects in naturally formed galleries, diet-reared insects in artificial galleries, and pulverized insects in artificial galleries. The molt from J3 to J4 appeared to be related to adult eclosion in M. carolinensis. We hypothesize that a genus-specific substance(s) associated with Monochamus adult eclosion ensures the Monochamus-B. xylophilus association. Key words: Bursafohelenchus xylophilus, development, dispersal stage, Monocharaus carolinensis, nematode, pine sawyer, pinewood nematode.