Resistance of Auto- and Allotetraploid Triticeae Species and Accessions to Meloidogyne chitwoodi based on Genome Composition
AbstractThe Columbia root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi parasitizes several plant species, including grasses that have been developed for semiarid environments, and substantially reduces the productivity of cereals and the longevity of perennial grasses growing under semiarid conditions throughout the intermountain region. Thirty-two auto- and allotetraploid (2n = 28) taxa in the perennial Triticeae were evaluated as possible sources of resistance to M. chitwoodi. Low levels of root galling were observed on roots of all accessions; root-gall indices ranged from 0 (no galls) to 1.95 in the grasses compared to 4.67 for the susceptible 'Ranger' alfalfa check on a scale of 1 to 6. Even though the gall ratings were low, significant (P 0.01) differences among accessions of the same species, among species, and among genera with different genomes were observed. Within the reproductive indices, which ranged fi'om 0.01 to 1.20 in the grasses compared to 65.38 for the alfalfa check, there was no difference among genera with different genomes and accessions within the same species and genome; however, there was a significant (P 0.05) difference among species with the same genomes. This variation can be traced to Thinopyrum nodosum (Jaaska-19), which was the only accession with a reproductive factor greater than 1.00. Based on the data, all auto- and allotetraploids are considered resistant to M. chitwoodi. Key words: Agropyron, Columbia root-knot nematode, Elymus, grasses, Hordeum,, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, nematode, Psathyrostachys, Pseudoroegneria, resistance, Thinopyrum.
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