Pathogenicity of Fungi to Eggs of Heterodera glycines
AbstractTwenty-one isolates of 18 fungal species were tested on water agar for their pathogenicity to eggs of Heterodera glycines. An egg-parasitic index (EPI) for each of these fungi was recorded on a scale from 0 to 10, and hatch of nematode eggs was determined after exposure to the fungi on water agar for 3 weeks at 24 C. The EPI for Verticillium chlamydosporium was 7.6, and the fungus reduced hatch 74%. Pyrenochaeta terrestris and two sterile fungi also showed a high EPI and reduced hatch 42-73%. Arthrobotrys dactyloides, Fusarium oxysporum, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Stagonospora heteroderae, Neocosmospora vasinfecta, Fusarium solani, and Exophiala pisciphila were moderately pathogenic to eggs (EPI was 2.0-4.5, and hatch was reduced 21-56%). Beauveria bassiana, Hirsutella rhossiliensis, Hirsutella thompsonii, Dictyochaeta heteroderae, Dictyochaeta coffeae, Gliocladium catenulatum, and Cladosporium sp. showed little parasitism of nematode eggs but reduced hatch. A negative correlation was observed between hatch and fungal parasitism of eggs. Fusarium oxysporum, H. rhossiliensis, P. lilacinus, S. heteroderae, V. chlamydosporium, and sterile fungus 1 also were tested in soil in a greenhouse test. After 3 months, the nematode densities were lower in soil treated with H. rhossiliensis and V. chlamydosporium than in untreated soil. The nematode population densities were correlated negatively with the EPI, but not with the percentage of cysts colonized by the fungi. Plant weights and heights generally increased in the soil treated with the fungi. Key words: biological control, cyst, egg parasite, egg-parasitic index, female nematode, fungus, hatch, Heterodera glycines, nematode, parasitism, pathogenicity, soybean cyst nematode.
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