Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica by Pasteuria penetrans in Field Soil
AbstractThe role of Pasteuria penetrans in suppressing numbers of root-knot nematodes was investigated in a 7-year monocuhure of tobacco in a field naturally infested with a mixed population of Meloidogyne incogeita race 1 and M. javanica. The suppressiveness of the soil was tested using four treatments: autoclaving (AC), microwaving (MW), air drying (DR), and untreated. The treated soil bioassays consisted of tobacco cv. Northrup King 326 (resistant to M. incognita but susceptible to M. javanica) and cv. Coker 371 Gold (susceptible to M. incognita and M. javanica) in pots inoculated with 0 or 2,000 second-stage juveniles of M. incognita race 1. Endospores of P. penetrans were killed by AC but were only slightly affected by MW, whereas most fungal propagules were destroyed or inhibited in both treatments. Root galls, egg masses, and numbers of eggs were fewer on Coker 371 Gold in MW, DR, and untreated soil than in AC-treated soil. There were fewer egg masses than root galls on both tobacco cultivars in MW, DR, and untreated soil than in the AC treatment. Because both Meloidogyne spp. were suppressed in MW soil (with few fungi present) as well as in DR and untreated soil, the reduction in root galling, as well as numbers of egg masses and eggs appeared to have resulted from infection of both nematode species by P. penetrans. Key words: bacterium, biological control, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, nematode, Nicotiana tabacum, Pasteuria penetrans, root-knot nematode, suppressive soil, tobacco.
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