Effects of Eight Brighteners as Solar Radiation Protectants for Steinernema carpocapsae, All Strain
AbstractSeven commercially available Blankophor fluorescent brighteners were compared with the standard Tinopal LPW as solar radiation protectants for Steinernema carpocapsae (All strain). Blankophor BBH and Tinopal LPW were the most successful UV screens, with 95% of the original nematode infectivity to larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, retained after 4 hours of exposure to direct sunlight. The Blankophor HRS and DML preserved 80 and 85% infectivity, and the P167 preserved 70% infectivity after the sunlight exposure. The other Blankophors (RKH, LPG, and BSU) were not as effective. Key words: biological control, Blankophor, brightener, entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae, solar radiation, stilbene.
Copyright and Permissions
All material published by the Society of Nematologists (SON), except for papers prepared by United States and Canadian government employees, is copyrighted and protected under the U.S. copyright law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the term of copyright for materials registered by an organization is 75 years from the date first published. Before publishing any manuscript, SON requires that authors transfer full and complete ownership of any copyright to SON by signing a JON Page Charge/Copyright Form (.pdf). SON then registers the copyright. Subsequent use of published materials requires written permission from the SON and may be obtained by contacting the current Editor-in-Chief and state where and how the material will be used.
The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant. If portions of the article have been published previously, then the author warrants that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder and the author will submit a copy of the permission release with this copyright transfer form.
SON shall claim no proprietary right other than copyright. Authors and coauthors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal noncommercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).