Availability of Fenamiphos and its Metabolites to Soil Water
AbstractField and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the extent to which fenamiphos and its degradation products, fenamiphos sulfoxide and fenamiphos sulfone, are available to contact nematodes in the soil. Water extraction provided a relative measure of each chemical's availability to the soil water where the chemicals could contact nematodes, and methanol extraction provided a relative measure of the total amount of each chemical present in the soil. Only small amounts of fenamiphos and fenamiphos sulfone could be extracted by water, even when much larger amounts were present in the soil. In contrast, virtually all of the fenamiphos sulfoxide present in the soil was extractable by water several days after nematicide application. Three days after fenamiphos (3EC) was applied at 6.7 kg a.i./ha to field plots, 6.4% of the fenamiphos, 14.4% of the fenamiphos sulfone, and 100% of the fenamiphos sulfoxide present in the soil was extracted by water. In greenhouse experiments with soil from these field plots, a 15G formulation of fenamiphos containing 98.7% fenamiphos and 1.3% fenamiphos sulfoxide was added to the soil. After an initial period of 3-4 days, the sulfoxide which formed by oxidation of fenamiphos became completely available for water extraction, whereas fenamiphos remained relatively unextractable by water. Fenamiphos sulfoxide is much more available to soil water, thus available for contact with nematodes, than are fenamiphos or fenamiphos sulfone. Based on this availability in water, it seems likely that fenamiphos sulfoxide is the major component for controlling nematodes. Key words: fenamiphos, fenamiphos sulfone, fenamiphos sulfoxide, metabolite, nematicide, nematode, soil solution, water.
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