Effect of Monochamus carolinensis on the Life History of the Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
AbstractThe development of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in pine wood infested with and free of Monochamus carolinensis was investigated. Formation of third-stage dispersal juveniles occurred in the presence and absence of pine sawyer beetles. The proportion of third-stage dispersal juveniles in the total nematode population was negatively correlated with moisture content of the wood. Formation of nematode dauer juveniles was dependent on the presence of the pine sawyer beetle. Dauer juveniles were present in 3 of 315 wood samples taken from non-beetle-infested Scots pine bolts and 81 of 311 samples taken from beetle-infested bolts. Nematode densities were greater in wood samples taken adjacent to insect larvae, pupae, and teneral adults compared with samples taken from areas void of insect activity. Nematodes recovered from beetle larvae, pupae, and teneral adults were mostly fourth-stage dauer juveniles, although some third-stage dispersal juveniles were also recovered. Dauer juvenile density was highest on teneral adult beetles. Key words: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, dauerjuvenile, Monochamus carolinensis, nematode, pine sawyer, pinewood nematode.
Copyright and Permissions
All material published by the Society of Nematologists (SON), except for papers prepared by United States and Canadian government employees, is copyrighted and protected under the U.S. copyright law. Under the Copyright Act of 1976, the term of copyright for materials registered by an organization is 75 years from the date first published. Before publishing any manuscript, SON requires that authors transfer full and complete ownership of any copyright to SON by signing a JON Page Charge/Copyright Form (.pdf). SON then registers the copyright. Subsequent use of published materials requires written permission from the SON and may be obtained by contacting the current Editor-in-Chief and state where and how the material will be used.
The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant. If portions of the article have been published previously, then the author warrants that permission has been obtained from the copyright holder and the author will submit a copy of the permission release with this copyright transfer form.
SON shall claim no proprietary right other than copyright. Authors and coauthors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal noncommercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).