Effectiveness of Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora against Popillia japonica in the Azores


  • N. Simoes
  • C. Laumond
  • E. Bonifassi


Steinernema carpocapsae (Breton strain), S. glaseri, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were evaluated for their potential to control immature stages of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, on Terceira Island (the Azores). In bioassays carried out at temperatures higher than 15 C, S. glaseri and H. bacteriophora caused 100% mortality of larvae, whereas S. carpocapsae caused 56% larval mortality. At temperatures slightly below 15 C, only S. glaseri remained effective. In field plots, in September, S. glaseri and S. carpocapsae reduced larval populations by 91% and 44%, respectively, when applied at the rate of 10[sup6] nematodes/m². In April, S. glaseri caused 31% reduction in numbers of larvae, but S. carpocapsae was ineffective. In colder months (November-February) neither steinernematids nor H. bacteriophora reduced larval populations. Increasing the application rate from 10[sup6] to 5 × 10[sup6] infective stage S. glaseri per m² increased efficacy from 63% to 79% mortality. Key words: Biological control, entomogenous nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, nematode, Popillia japonica, Steinernema carpocapsae, S. glaseri.