Effects of Enzymes, Chemicals, and Tempertaure on Steinernema carpocapsae Attraction to Host Plasma


  • Wirote Khlibsuwan
  • Nobuyoshi Ishibashi
  • Eizo Kondo


Migration of exsheathed infective juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae to plasma of the host insect Spodoptera litura was not affected by treatments with the lectins concanavalin A, soybean agglutinin, or wheat germ agglutinin; with the enzymes neuraminidase,[alpha]-mannosidase, lipase, pronase, or phospholipase C; or with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide or spermidine. Treatment with sodium metaperiodate or sodium hypochlorite inhibited nematode attraction towards insect plasma; numbers of randomly wandering nematodes increased. Nematode migration towards the source of attraction was unaffected by temperatures below 33 C but was impaired at 35 and 37 C. The adverse effect of 5 mM and 10 mM NaIO[sub4] on migratory behavior was reversed 24 hours after rinsing with buffered saline. The effect of NaOCl on nematode behavior was slightly reversible at concentrations of 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v) but apparently irreversible at 0.6 and 1.0%. The effect of heat treatment at 35 and 37 C was reversible. Key words: attraction, insect plasma, nematode surface coat, Spodoptera litura, Steinernema carpocapsac, temperature dependency.