Influence of Temperature and Soybean Phenology on Dormancy Induction of Heterodera glycines
AbstractGrowth room and field experiments were conducted to determine the influence of soil temperature and soybean phenology on dormancy induction of a North Carolina population of Heterodera glycines race 1. Three temperature regimes and two photoperiods to regulate plant phenology were investigated in growth rooms. H. glycines hatch was greatest from the 26 and 22 C (day and night) temperature treatment, intermediate at 22 and 18 C, and least from the decreasing regime (26 and 22 C, 22 and 18 C, and 18 and 14 C). More eggs hatched and greater nematode reproduction occurred on pod-producing soybeans than on those that remained vegetative. In the field study, hatching patterns were not different between depodded and naturally senescing soybeans nor between the different maturity groups of soybean cultivars (groups V through VIII). Egg hatch (9-16%) was greatest in August and September when mean soil temperatures were between 25 and 29 C. Hatch declined to 1% in vitro and was not detectable in the bioassay in November. Greatest nematode numbers were observed on the latest maturing cultivar (group VIII) and fewest on the cultivar which matured earliest (group V). Decreasing temperature appears to be more important than soybean phenology in dormancy induction of H. glycines. Key words: Glycine max, Heterodera glycines, population dynamics, soybean cyst nematode, soybean, survival.
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