Influence of Four Nematodes on Root and Shoot Growth Parameters in Grape
AbstractTwo grape cultivars, susceptible French Colombard and tolerant Rubired, and four nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus vulnus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Xiphinema index, were used to quantify the equilibrium between root (R) and shoot (S) growth. Root and shoot growth of French Colombard was retarded by M. incognita, P. vulnus, and X. index but not by T. semipenetrans. Although the root growth of Rubired was limited by all the nematodes, the shoot growth was limited only by X. index. The R:S ratios of Rubired were higher than those of French Colombard. The reduced R:S ratios of Rubired were primarily an expression of reduction in root systems without an equal reduction in shoot growth, whereas in French Colombard the reduced R:S ratios were due to a reduction in both shoot growth and root growth and to a greater reduction in root growth than shoot growth. All nematodes reproduced equally well on both cultivars. Both foliage and root growth of French Colombard were significantly reduced by M. incognita and P. vulnus. Nematodes reduced the shoot length by reducing the internode length. Accumulative R:S ratios in inoculated plants were significantly smaller than those in controls in all nematode treatments but not at individual harvest dates. Bud break was delayed by X. index and was initiated earlier by P. vulnus and M. incognita. All buds in nematode treatments were less vigorous than in controls. Key words: French Colombard grape, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus vulnus, Rubired grape, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, Vitis vinifera, Xiphinema index.
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