Overwintering Stages of Meloidogyne incognita in Vitis vinifera
AbstractThe overwintering of Meloidogyne incognita in and around Vitis vinifera cv. French Colombard roots was studied in a naturally infested vineyard at the Kearney Agricultural Center, in a growth chamber, in inoculated vines in microplots at the University of California, Davis, and in a greenhouse. Infected roots were sampled at intervals from onset of vine dormancy until plants accumulated about 800 degree days (DD - base 10 C). Embryogenesis within eggs, classified as less than or more than 16 cells and fully differentiated, and numbers of juveniles (second to fourth stage) and preovipositional and mature (egg-laying) adult stages in roots were determined. All stages were present at the onset of dormancy. Juveniles and immature females were not recovered during the dormant period. Mature females and eggs were always present in roots, although the number of mature females generally decreased with time after onset of dormancy. In contrast, in a greenhouse experiment that accumulated comparable DD without the host plant going through dormancy, the number of mature females increased. After bud break, the number of eggs per female increased and all nematode stages were found in host roots. Eggs in all stages of embryogenesis were observed at all times of sampling, indicating that females overwinter and are capable of laying eggs when conditions improve in the spring and need to be considered in nematode management decisions. Key words: degree days, Meloidogyne incognita, nematode management, overwintering, root-knot nematode, Vitis vinifera.
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