Seasonal Population Fluctuation of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi in New York and Pennsylvania Orchards


  • B. A. Jaffee
  • M. B. Harrison
  • R. L. Shaffer
  • M. B. Strang


The population fluctuation and composition of Xiphinema americanum (sensu stricto) and X. rivesi were studied in a New York apple orchard (only X. americanum present), a Pennsylvania apple orchard (both X. americanum and X. rivesi present), and a Pennsylvania peach orchard (X. americanum, X. rivesi, and X. californicum present). Few clear trends in population fluctuation or composition were observed. The adult female was the predominant stage in most sample periods, and the reproductive period was limited to late spring and early summer. Only a few of the females at any sample period were gravid. All stages were present throughout the year, and all stages overwintered. Eggs in soil were not monitored. In the Pennsylvania apple orchard, X. americanum and X. rivesi were easily separated by morphological characteristics; however, the two species did not display differences in population structure or composition. The predominance of adults, the relatively low reproductive rates, and the association of these species with stable habitats suggest that the life strategies of X. arnericanum and X. rivesi are K-selected as opposed to r-selected. Key words: apple, dagger nematodes, Malus, Nematoda, Prunus, Xiphinema americanum, X. rivesi.