Structural Changes Associated with Resistance of Soybean to Heterodera glycines
AbstractSubcellular responses to infection by Race 3 of Heterodera glycines in susceptible ('Lee') and resistant ('Forrest' and 'Bedford') soybean cultivars were compared. Syncytial formation, initiated in susceptible as well as resistant soybean cultivars, was characterized by wall perforations, dense cytoplasm, and increased endoplasmic reticulum, In susceptible plants, syncytia developed continuously until nematode maturity. This included hypertrophy of nuclei, increase of rough endoplasmic reticulum in early stages of infection, and formation of wall ingrowths at a late stage of infection. In the resistant reaction in Forrest, a necrotic layer surrounded syncytium component cells demarcating them from surrounding normal cells and leading to syncytial necrosis. Wall appositions were prominently formed near the necrotic layer, and the cytoplasm of the syncytium component cells was extremely condensed. The whole syncytium became necrotic at a late stage of infection. Bedford had nuclear degeneration prior to cytoplasmic degradation. Chromatin was often scattered throughout the syncytial cytoplasm. Finally the whole syncytium became degenerated with plasmalemma completely detached from the syncytial cell walls. The differences in resistant responses reflect a difference in genetic composition of the soybean cultivars tested. Key words: cytopathology, Glycine max, Heterodera glycines, resistance, soybean, soybean cyst nematode, syncytium, ultrastructure.
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