Parasitism of Xiphinema rivesi and X. americanum by Zoosporic Fungi


  • B. A. Jafee


Living Xiphinema americanum (Xa) and X. rivesi (Xr) extracted from soil samples and stored for 1-5 days at 4 or 20 C contained aseptate fungal hyphae. The fungi directly penetrated the nematode's cuticle from spores encysted near the head. Penetration through the stoma, vulva, or anus was rare. Catenaria anguillulae (Cat), Lagenidium caudatura (Lag), Aphanomyces sp. (Aph), and Leptolegnia sp. (Lep) were isolated into pure culture from infected nematodes. The pathogenicity of these zoosporic fungi was determined by incubating mixed freshly extracted Xa and Xr in 2% soil extract (pH = 6.7, conductivity = 48 [mu]mhos, 20 + 2 C) containing zoospores obtained from single-spore isolates. After 4 days, Cat, Lag, Aph, and Lep had infected 78, 18, 13, and 22%, respectively, of the nematodes. Both Xa and Xr were infected by every fungus; however, the relative susceptibility of Xa and Xr to these fungi was not determined. All noninoculated control nematodes remained uninfected and alive. In a second experiment, parasitism of Xa and Xr by Aph and Lep was increased when nematodes were incubated in 2% soil extract for 4 days before exposure to zoospores. In a third experiment, parasitism of Xa and Xr by Cat was greater in diluted saturation soil extract (conductivity = 100-400 [mu]mhos) than in undiluted saturation extract (conductivity = 780 [mu]mhos). Cat produced small zoospores (4-[mu]m-d), bulbous infection hyphae, and assimilative hyphae of varying diameters in nematodes, whereas Lag, Aph, and Lep produced large zoospores (8-[mu]m-d) and tubular, uniform infection and assimilative hyphae in nematodes. Key words: biological control, Catenaria, Lagenidium, Aphanomyces, Leptolegnia, endoparasites, dagger nematodes.