Morphological Comparisons Between Xiphinema rivesi Daimasso and X. americanum Cobb Populations from the Eastern United States


  • Marek R. Wojtowlcz
  • A. Morgan Golden
  • L. B. Forer
  • R. F. Stouffer


Though in the past Xiphinema americanum has been the most commonly reported dagger nematode in the eastern United States, our studies revealed the presence in Pennsvlvania of a previously unrecognized and unreported species related to X. americanum, Morphometric data and photomicrographs establish the identity of this form as X. rivesi and show expected variations in populations of this species from various locations. Similar data and illustrations are given for X. americanum populations from Pennsylvania and other areas, showing variations and relationships. Xiphinema rivesi is widely distributed in the fruit producing area of south-central Pennsylvania and is also reported herein from raspberry in Vermont and apple in Maryland and New York. This species is frequently found in fruit growing areas of Pennsylvania associated with tomato ringspot virus-induced diseases and is also found associated with corn, bluegrass sod, and alfalfa. Key words: Xiphinema americanum, X. rivesi, morphology, occurrence, fruit orchards, virus transmission.