Protective Works on The Nile Delta Coast


  • A. M. Fanos
  • A. A. Khafagy
  • R. G. Dean


Nile Delta, erosion, accretion, protective structures


The Nile Delta Coast is a dynamic system which in historic times was in equilibrium or experienced an excess of sediment due to the large quantities of sediments discharged to the Mediterranean Sea through the various Nile branches. With the construction of the nine barrages (dams) along the main course of the river commencing at the beginning of the 20th century, the Nile Delta coastal zone has exhibited a sediment deficit and thus erosion, especially around the three main headlands, i.e., Rosetta, EI Burullus, and Damietta. This erosion has been particularly alarming since the construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1964, which trapped essentially all the flood sediments in its storage basin. Erosion is not the only trouble affecting the Delta coast. High rates of easterly longshore transport which cause shoaling of the Nile mouths and the outlets of the northern lagoons are also a serious problem; they directly affect coastal navigation and the eco-system of the lakes and consequently fish production. The aims of this paper are as follows: (1) to present a brief review of the major existing coastal problems along the Nile Delta Coast, and (2) to provide a general description of the protective measures that have been implemented in the coastal zone to address these problems.