Littoral Environment Observation Program


  • Ernest R. Smith
  • Stephen E. Wagner


Breaking waves, coastal observations, currents, nearshore berms, sand bypassing, sediment transport, wind


The Littoral Environment Observation Program (LEO) was instituted in 1968 to provide low cost data on waves, currents, and sand movements along beaches. The data base currently consists of over 350 sites in the United States. Data collected from the program has been beneficial for design and monitoring of numerous projects. LEO data are not as accurate as measured data, but the program can provide data in areas where instrumentation cannot be placed or where funds are not available, and efforts are being made to improve the accuracy of LEO data. Future modifications to the program include transfer of the data base to personal computers, inclusion of beach width and berm height in the observations, and improvements to measurement techniques.