Higher Education Music Teacher Educators and Assessment: Their Understandings, Efficacy, and Satisfaction


  • Kelly Anne Parkes Teachers College, Columbia University
  • Jared Robert Rawlings




Efficacy, music teacher educators, pedagogy, satisfaction.


In this study, we report what music teacher educators (MTEs, N = 149) in higher education understand about assessment. We include their assessment pedagogy, their levels of assessment pedagogy efficacy (APE) at both programmatic (unit level) and personal levels (ProAPE and PeAPE respectively), and the relationship this efficacy has with their (MTEs) satisfaction of assessment pedagogies within their institutions. This mixed-methods study uses a convergent parallel design, with qualitative inductive coding and quantitative factor analyses, correlational analyses, and non-parametric tests. We determine that MTEs report some misunderstanding of the assessment lexicon nevertheless they hold mostly high levels of both personal and programmatic assessment pedagogy efficacy. Differences were observed between MTEs that graduated after 2008 than those who graduated prior to 2008. Findings center on higher education faculty comfort with assessment in higher education with implications for professional development and continued research in the area.

Author Biographies

Kelly Anne Parkes, Teachers College, Columbia University

Director and Associate Professor
Music and Music Education Program
Chair of the Teacher Education Policy Committee
Teachers College, Columbia University
New York, NY 10027

Jared Robert Rawlings

Jared R. Rawlings, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, Music Education Area Head

Associate Director, School of Music

Director of Undergraduate Studies

The University of Utah,

Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0030 

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